[ditty_news_ticker id="27897"] From OCL’s Archives: Women’s Role in the Church – The Restoration of the Diaconate - Orthodox Christian Laity

From OCL’s Archives: Women’s Role in the Church – The Restoration of the Diaconate


Source: Orthodox Christian Laity

Originally published in OCL’s “THE FORUM,” Summer-Autumn 1993.


Women in the church is not one issue but is a topic comprised of many facets. Let us begin with women in the New Testament and Early Church and proceed to their role as saints and their service in the women’s diaconate.

Women were the first to hear of Christ’s Resurrection, and these women disciples were told to “go and proclaim” the Resurrection. Christ first identified Himself to the Woman of Samaria. She is known as Photine, the Woman at the Well.

Many women traveled with Jesus during His ministry. Some women opened their homes to Him, others were teachers and preachers. St Junia is credited with teaching Apollos about Christianity and bringing him to Christ We can read about her in the New Testament.

Unfortunately; she is often referred to as Junius, the male form of Junia. Likewise, St Nina, the Evangelizer of Georgia and Equal to the Apostles is often called Nino,·and both women are referred to as him not her.

Prisca or Pricilla, the wife of Aquila, is mentioned before him in the Bible, thus denoting her status in the Christian community. Mary Magdalene was a follower of Christ and a disciple of His Word. The Gospel bears witness to Jesus’ chastisement of Martha when she came to Him, angry that her sister Mary was not tending”to the things of the house”.


Women in Early Church history were seen to be given an equal share. So unlike prior Hebrew tradition, the Church was egalitarian. This history of women’s ministry from the New Testament and Early Church should be proclaimed by the Orthodox, yet examples of Junia/Junius, and Nina/ Nino only serve as a testament to the distortion of women in Church history.

One woman who stands out in the New Testament is Phoebe, a worker with St Paul, who was the first woman deacon. She was called both diakonos and prostatis, which in those days denoted someone in authority. In the 3rd and 4th centuries, women deacons were common. St John Chrysostom was an advocate of the female diaconate, and letters between him and female deacons have survived.

Tombstones serve as another reference. Many can be found bearing witness to female deacons and their ministry. One such example is a tombstone on the Mt. of Olives which bears the inscription: “here lies Sophia the Deacon, a second Phoebe.”

Several female deacons became saints. Among them are: St. Macrina, the sister of Sts. Gregory and Basil; St. Nonna, the wife of St. Gregory Nazianzus; St. Theosebia, the wife of St. Gregory of Nyssa; St. Gorgonia, the daughter of St. Gregory the Theologian; St. Melania, St. Susanna, St. Appolonia, St. Olympia, and St. Xenia.

The icon of St Tatiana shows her wearing the diaconal stole with the words “Holy, Holy, Holy” in Slavonic as is the custom for Russian deacons. She is wearing cuffs as do our male priests and deacons, and
she is holding the censor in one hand, a cross in the other.

In the year 535, forty female deacons were employed and serving at Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.


Women deacons took Communion from the hands of the bishop in the altar, as do our male priests and deacons today. The female deacons took the chalice from the altar and replaced it on the prothesis table after Communion, as do our male deacons today.

Ancient service books attest to the ordination of women deacons, showing the order of ordination, litanies and ordination prayers. Women deacons were ordained right before the Lord’s prayer as male deacons are.

The female diaconate peaked in the Early Qmrch, declined in the Eighth Century, and virtually disappeared by the Twelfth Century, although individual women, especially nuns, have been ordained throughout the ages. In 1911, St Nektarios, then a bishop in Greece, ordained a female monastic as a deacon. A few years later, Chrysostomos, Archbishop of Athens did likewise.

In 1957, a college for women deacons opened in Greece. While most assume no graduates have ever been ordained, rumors persist that somewhere in Greece, a woman was ordained a deacon this past summer.

The restoration of the female diaconate received a lot of press in pre­ revolutionary Russia, winning support from several bis ops. The Revolution interrupted the Synod which had on its agenda, the restoration of this order.

Many contemporary women and men feel that the restoration of this order is not a stepping stone to the priesthood, but a viable women’s ministry, and that it is long overdue in the Orthodox Church.

Matushka Ellen Gvosdev

Matushka Ellen Gvosdov is the granddaughter and wife of a priest, and a native of San Francisco, California. Her husband, Father Kirrill was pastor of St Nicholas Orthodox Church (OCA) in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. She has involved much of her life in researching and perpetuating the role of ‘Women in the Church”.

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  1. Cato the Elder on

    I recently listened to the presentation of Protodeacon Peter Danilchick of the OCA on the occasion of OCL’s 34th Annual Program. I was encouraged by his comments concerning the progress in restoring the permanent diaconate, which the OCL has been promoting for three decades. I was also disappointed that neither the speaker, nor any of the panelists or questions referred to the restoration of the female diaconate, which was the subject of OCL’s 1993 article from its archives.

    This is especially disappointing since the OCA, as an autocephalous Church in North America, could move forward in this area without seeking the permission of any foreign synod. Likewise, the OCA could raise the issue with the Assembly of Bishops.

    Hopefully, IOTA, the theologians at Fordham, and others will reignite this “conversation” since the permanent diaconate seems to have finally gained some acceptance.

  2. Understand, the female diaconate in the Orthodox Church has been restored. Let me explain. The duties of the female diaconate were to offer care & assistance to elderly women & their families. They were in essence, CARE GIVERS. In society, we have organizations that have picked up this responsibility; visiting nurses, etc. These organizations profit from this care. Any church can organize their own care-giving people for their own people. One, you must have the people and two, any local church can support such functions. Catholic Charities perform this work. Deacons, male & female would also take the Holy Eucharist to the sick and home-bound.

  3. Cato the Elder on


    Matushka Gvosdev’s article clearly shows that ordained female deacons performed more than “care & assistance to elderly women & their families.”

    Saying that “the female diaconate in the Orthodox Church has been restored” .. because women already have opportunities to be caregivers .. is a transparent deflection.

    If you are opposed to the ordination of women to the permanent diaconate in the Orthodox Church in North America, just say so.. and support your position with facts like Matushka Gvosdev did.

  4. Not at all opposed to the re-establishment of the female diaconate, but people need to understand what that role was in the early church. As I said, their primary role was to be care-givers for women & families. They would also bring the Eucharist to shut-ins. Most of the female deacons were elderly and widows. A re-establishment of the female diaconate would require a clear definition of their duties.

  5. Cato the Elder on

    Christ is Born! Glorify Him!


    Ordination .. liturgical role .. same as male deacons .. permanent diaconate .. meaning not a step to priesthood.

    Clear enough?

  6. Cato:

    The female diaconate WAS NOT the same as the male diaconate – get this straight. If the female diaconate is reinstituted, then all the duties & responsibilities of the office must be clearly defined.

  7. George D. Karcazes on

    Nikolai and Cato,

    I suggest to you, and those who are interested in the issue of women in the Orthodox Church, get and read the recently published book by Carrie Frederick Frost: “Church of our Granddaughters” published this year [2023] and available from Amazon.

    It deals with the question of Deaconesses in the Orthodox Church and much more about how some of the practices of the Orthodox Church with respect to women are not consistent with the teachings of the Church.

    It was the summer book club selection of the adult education ministry of my parish and engendered three excellent, well attended discussion sessions.

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