[ditty_news_ticker id="27897"] IS IT TIME TO DO AWAY WITH LITURGICAL GREEK? - Orthodox Christian Laity


Pictured Above: John 3:16 in the original Koine Greek

Pictured Above: John 3:16 in the original Koine Greek

Source: OrthodoxOutpost.com


Imagine that you have been invited to class with an amazing teacher only to find that the teacher chooses to instruct students in a language that none of them understand. This is the experience of many people in the Orthodox Church. Every Sunday people encounter the Divine Liturgy but far too many fail to understand it, because the Church chooses to worship in a language that is not spoken by its members. This is true of many Churches today including The Greek Orthodox Church and The Russian Orthodox Church.

How many people enter the front door of a parish every Sunday only to leave when they discover they cannot understand the Divine Liturgy?

Many different languages contribute to this problem in the United States.  Liturgical Greek is one of them. No doubt some will rush to point out that the Church is bi-lingual but the reality is that a Divine Liturgy that is only partially understood is a liturgy that does not help people understand or pass along the gift of Orthodox Christianity. No parish can flourish by cutting its liturgical worship into pieces. Orthodox youth cannot form a healthy relationship with the Divine Liturgy by only understanding parts of it Sunday after Sunday.

Here are five facts that demonstrate that the present day use of Liturgical Greek is unhealthy for the Church:

People Do Not Speak Liturgical Greek – even in Greece: Many people believe that the Greek used in Liturgy is the same Greek Language that is spoken today. This is not the case. Greek Orthodox Churches use Koine Greek for its services. This is the language of the New Testament that was spoken nearly two thousand years ago. This differs significantly from the Modern Greek language that is commonly spoken today. Today, the Church uses a language in its liturgy that is neither commonly spoken nor commonly understood by people in Greece themselves. Unfortunately, efforts to change this practice have been rejected. In 2002, the Church of Greece banned the use of any language other than Koine Greek and admonished a bishop who asserted that the Church should worship in Modern Greek. The same decision was confirmed in 2010 by Church leaders and went further by forbidding any translation of the Divine Liturgy. The end result of these actions is that an increasing number of people in Greece find themselves on the margins of their Church.

Using Liturgical Greek Divides Families:  Statistics show that nearly 85% of marriages that take place in the Greek Orthodox Church involve one spouse who chooses not to be Orthodox. The Greek Orthodox family is undergoing a radical shift that will permanently change the make-up of the Church for decades to come. Greek Orthodoxy in America is quickly becoming less ethnic while the family that is united in its witness to the Orthodox Christian Faith is becoming increasingly rare. For many of today’s youth Orthodoxy is simply another cafeteria choice between one parent’s faith or another parent’s faith. It is certainly fair to ask how the Church can effectively minister to youth and mixed marriages when it insists on worshiping in a language that is neither spoken nor understood by its families at home. Despite over seventeen million dollars in combined spending over the past ten years on youth ministry, family care and religious education, Greek Orthodoxy continues to hemorrhage young families. The most recent registry statistics show that baptisms are at recorded lows in America.

Using Liturgical Greek Discourages Evangelization:  Evangelization is not an optional part of being an Orthodox Christian. It is an essential part of being an Orthodox Christian. Contrary to popular belief, the debate over language is not a modern issue. The Church settled this issue over one thousand years ago and now glorifies two men as Equal to the Apostles who taught that the Church has a responsibility to worship in a language people understand. Sts. Cyril and Methodius faced a popular culture in the ninth century that insisted the Church could only worship in Koine Greek or Latin. Both saints resisted this error and focused on evangelization rather than language preservation. Sts. Cyril and Methodius undertook missionary journeys to the Slavic lands and created a written language for people to embrace. The end result was the conversion of millions to the Christian faith. The Slavic world is Christian today because the Church knew people must worship in a language they both speak and understand. This is true not only in the ninth century but also in the twenty-first century. It is Tradition that the Church evangelize people by meeting them where they are at and worshiping in the language they speak. Today, much of Greek Orthodoxy has forgotten the lesson of Sts. Cyril and Methodius by its insistence on the use Koine Greek in the Liturgy. The result is increasing isolation at the expense of evangelization and growth.  Registry Statistics show that Chrismations (conversions) are at recorded lows in America.

Using Greek in the Liturgy Undermines the Faith of Our Youth: No parish would ever consider holding religious education in Koine Greek. No summer camp would be considered successful if it was held in Koine Greek. No Greek Orthodox priest preaches or hears confessions in Koine Greek. And yet Koine Greek is regularly used in Divine Liturgy which is by far the most essential work of the Church. More than ever, education and youth ministry efforts struggle because young people are not given the opportunity to develop a healthy relationship with the Liturgical life of the Church. Language has become a stumbling block that keeps young people from experiencing Orthodoxy in its fullness. This is no doubt a factor in the 60% of college students who leave the Orthodox Faith.

Using Liturgical Greek Erodes Hellenism: ‘You don’t have to be Greek to be a Hellene.” These words from Fr. John Bakas speak to the very core of the challenge facing Greek Orthodoxy in America today. The great challenge today is that ethnicity is often mistaken for Hellenic values. Dance groups and food festivals are prized more than the culture of Hellenism that is present in the life of the Church and the civilized world. The use of Koine Greek today undermines a healthy understanding of Orthodoxy because its use is a barrier to acquiring an authentic Hellenic mind. Fr. John Bakas is again correct when he reminds us all that “…we can all be Hellenes by emphasizing the Hellenic roots, the Hellenic philosophy, and the Hellenic Character of Christianity…that is what we must do and we will attract others…” Liturgical Greek is not needed to preserve and grow the Greek Orthodox Church in America. What the Church needs is a liturgy that is fully understood by its members. In this way, it will truly succeed in transmitting the great ideas of Hellenism and the Hellenic nature of Orthodox Christianity to all people.

Language matters when it comes to living the Orthodox Christian Faith. The way we pray shapes what we believe and a church whose families cannot understand liturgy is a church whose families will stop attending Liturgy.

Research by the Assembly of Bishops in America shows that parishes that use all English experience an increase in attendance by as much as 30%. Many parishes in America can benefit from a 30% increase in liturgical participation. One cannot also help but wonder how many people in Greece would return to Church if modern Greek was used as the language of the Divine Liturgy.

The Orthodox Faith through the example Sts. Cyril and Methodius teaches us that no language holds a position of privilege in the Church nor does the Church consider any ethnicity or nationality uniquely sacred. Today, one should not have to learn an ancient language to understand the Divine Liturgy. On the contrary, when you look at the Tradition of Orthodox Christianity, it is the Church that has the responsibility to learn new languages so as to fulfill its vocation to spread the Gospel.

Consider the following words from Kontakion for St. Cyril and Methodius:

Let us honor our two holy enlighteners, / who by translating the divine writings/ have poured forth a well-spring of knowledge from which we still draw today. / We call you blessed, O Cyril and Methodius:/ as you stand before God, intercede fervently for our souls.

St. Cyrill and Methodius had it right over a thousand years ago.

The Church needs to follow their example more than ever today. When it comes understanding and preserving the Orthodox Christian Faith handed down to us by the Apostles, it is better to build a longer table than a taller fence.


Andrew Estocin is a lifelong Orthodox Christian. He received his B.A. with a double major in Philosophy and Theology from Fordham University. His writings have appeared in numerous publications including The Albuquerque Journal, Touchstone, Beliefnet.com and The Orthodox Observer. Andrew’s work is featured on the The Orthodox Christian Network where he writes on a variety of contemporary issues.



  1. Although my Greek father understood ancient Greek, I unfortunately did not learn. Even my modern Greek is very poor, and since we’re being honest, I’m not particularly religious. But despite my father being gone, and my wife being an American Catholic, I still attend Greek services sometimes. Why? Because there is a beauty to the liturgy’s durability over the centuries and the continuity of the Greek people and culture.

    To change these beautiful words because modern society struggles with them would be like ceasing to speak proper English because teenagers don’t seem to be able to learn grammar.

    The Catholics shifted to the vernacular from Latin, and their attendance numbers still went lower.

    The quartz watches of the 1970’s only made real mechanical watches more desirable In the following decades. Modern tastes and trends will come and go like the tide, but the beautiful things that stand unchanged will always have a place.

  2. Andrew Kartalis on

    Do we go to church to learn or do we go there to listen to melodic words in ancient Greek? If it is the former, then the liturgy has to be in a language that is understood by the parishioners. In Serbia, the liturgy is in Serbian, in Russia it is Russian, etc. The Orthodox religion through the ages as it spread into the world has taken on the language of the people in each country – so that they can understand the Church’s teaching. Except here in America, with the exception of the Antiochian and some OCA churches, the liturgy is preached in a foreign language. Sounds pretty but unintelligible. Doesn’t make sense.

  3. TCN, unfortunately you have a complete misunderstanding of the purpose of liturgy and the church.Liturgy is meant for worship not for maintenance of a culture. The church was established by Jesus to carry on His message of salvation and new life. Obviously, you have a very secularized view of the church. I suggest you read the scriptures, go to confession and enter into the abundant, meaningful and purposeful life offered only in Jesus Christ – He awaits you and each of us with love and forgiveness.

  4. What you have to understand is that ALL foreign bishops need to hold their control on THEIR ILLEGAL (non-canonical) dioceses in America. They do this by making THEIR churches use Greek, Russian, Arabic, etc. They must shore up the ethnic divisions. For these foreign bishops, English & Pan-Orthodoxy is their anathema. They know that already their churches are asking, “Why do we need to take orders from overseas foreign bishops?” The truth is, they don’t and it is NON-CANONICAL. The American Autocephalous Church is already here and well-established – join it! The OCA.

  5. This is such a pointless controversy that I have to wonder why there is such a desire to remove beauty unnecessarily. All the churches in my area use BOTH English and Greek. Everything that’s said in Greek is also said in English. My Greek isn’t great, but I love the Greek because it’s so much more beautiful than English. The English translations are often clumsy and awkward sounding. But it’s there so you understand it. Once you understand it, do you really need that crutch anymore? The Liturgy is the same every week. I once went to a little Russian church. It was an old parish full of old parishioners, and everything was in Russian. No English. But it’s still the Liturgy, so I was able to follow along and know where we were. Why do you insist on removing beauty instead of keeping it alongside English?

    • There are 2 problems with your comment. The first problem is that if everything is done in both languages you needlessly extend the length of the liturgy. The liturgy, with all the accretions to the original liturgy created by St John Chrysostom, is already long and many would say too long. Second, the primary purpose of liturgy is worship not beauty and understanding is an essential element of worship. I remind you the words of St Paul who said, “it is better to speak 10 words in a known language than 10,000 words in an unknown language.” This statement from St Paul should, should be the definitive guideline to language in the church. St Paul says one thing and you and others support another. We must confirm church practice to scripture and the tradition of the church.

    • George, I have been waiting for a response to my post addressing your post. I assume that you now understand the correct position concerning language.

  6. The Canons of the Church are clear, churches in any particular country are to use the vernacular of that particular country. Here in America, there “WAS” a mass migration from different countries and they all wanted to hear their native language in their churches. NT Greek was never spoken & Church Slavonic was never spoken so, it really was silly to use either. Yet, the Greeks want to hear it; etc. Using English, as ALL Orthodox in America should use, is still being fought by FOREIGN BISHOPS. Keeping the Orthodox in America divided and in their own ethnic enclaves are how these foreign bishops keep the BUCKS ROLLING IN FOR THEMSELVES. WAKE UP PEOPLE! Why are Orthodox Americans being forced to support foreign bishops – servitude?

  7. Mr Boulis,
    Do you and your family know and understand liturgical Greek? Liturgy is meant to be understood. Jesus spoke in Aramaic because that was the language people understood. St Paul states, that it is better to speak 10 words in a known language than 10,000 words in an unknown language. Use of Greek marginalizes and trivializes liturgy. If there is a parish that is made of primarily Greek speaking people Greek should be used.

  8. John Kalinoglou on

    Greek is the essential language of Christianity. Many, if not most, clergy of traditional Christian Religions study Greek to enhance their understanding of the Faith. It is our responsibility to both preserve the Greek and to use the English language of most of our people. In my 85 years, I have seen the evolution of the Liturgy to include much or mostly English according to the needs of each Parish. We are always impatient and want things to take place in our time instead of God’s time. He is our Guide and the Protector of the Church, which has survived the harshest persecutions.
    My people lived under severe Muslim domination for 900 years. Over that time, as a minority, they spoke Turkish mostly or exclusively. However, they preserved the Faith, including the essential native Greek language of the Faith, by writing the Bible and other religious Church books using the Turkish alphabet. I have one of those Bibles and other Books, many printed by the Patriarchate.
    There are many more serious issues to deal with than getting hung up on the language, which has been and is evolving.

  9. John, thanks for your thoughts. I don’t know of anywhere in Scripture or among the Fathers of the Church where the Body of Christ is commissioned to preserve a language. Please enlighten me if I am wrong. The mission of the Church is to live and spread the Gospel, which can only be done in a language people understand. Rather than focus on God’s timing, we should focus on submitting to His will and how His will can be accomplished through the church.

  10. John, you don’t understand. The Roman/ Byzantine Empire was made up of many people with many different languages. Since Alexander the Great’s time and maybe before, Greek was the written language of the empire. All documents were written in Greek, classical Greek. This is why the inscription of who Christ was on the Cross was written in Latin, Greek and Hebrew. The earliest writings of the New Testament were in Greek. This is why theologians study New Testament Greek. The Fathers of the Church wrote in Greek. HOWEVER, when the Apostles went to foreign lands, they spoke in the vernacular of the people (Pentecost) and served Liturgy in the vernacular of the people. They taught in the vernacular of the people. In America, we all speak English.

  11. It’s so moving that our non Greek speaking American Orthodox brothers decided in what manner we should worship for us. I love being patronized because I am incompetent of making decisions for myself, just like the rest of the Greek flock. Gotta love American white knights. They are the world’s saviors.

  12. Cato the Elder on

    I’m sure you are proud of being Greek speaking. Maybe you are also proficient in New Testament Greek and katharevousa, in addition to demotic Greek. That’s nice. Good for you. Knowing many languages is a blessing, even if they are languages that are no longer being spoken.

    The study of New Testament Greek, Ancient Greek, Hebrew and Latin is great for scholars, theologians and others who have an academic interest in these subjects.

    The Liturgy books in the pews of every parish I have attended contain the Liturgies of St. John Chrysostom and St. Basil the Great. They call for prayers by the Priest and responses by the People. I do not see the Choir much less the Chanter mentioned in my Liturgy books.

    The Liturgy is a living thing. It requires the active, informed and focused attention of the people. If the people in the pews are going to sing the responses, hopefully along with a choir of trained voices leading them, the language must be in the language they are most familiar with.

    In America, that’s English.

    Will there be parishes with a majority of non-English speaking immigrants during a transitional time?

    Of course.

    But they too should be encouraged to sing the responses in their own language.

    Choirs should be encouraged.

    Chanters should be phased out. Especially chanters who drone on and on, endlessly prolonging the responses with repetitious embellishments trying to imitate the sounds of the middle east calls to prayer from minarets. The tyranny of the chanters should be ended once and for all in all Orthodox Churches in America. The Liturgy is a work of the people. The people should be encouraged to participate by singing the responses, even quietly or under their breath if they do not feel confident in their musical ability.

    Understanding the language is critical.

    Participation is essential.

    If you want a performance in a language you don’t understand, go to the Opera.

    • Like I said, God save Murican white knights. They’ll bring freedom (TM) to the whole world, whether the world wants it or not.

      • Peter Ray Millman on

        Hi KP,
        I’m disappointed in your comment. As you know, the term Murican is considered a derogatory slur against the US. I hate to chastise a brother Greek American. I couldn’t find anything wrong with Cato the Elder’s post. He said being multi- lingual is a blessing, which it is. Multilingualism increases brain function, slows brain aging, and broadens one’s perspective, but there is really no reason to get nasty. Hopefully, if one lives in the US, they have some love for our country. After all, this is not Greece, it’s America.

        • Of course the American will assume I’m American myself. That’s the default, isn’t it? This whole article and its comment section is a wonderful display of American exceptionalism.

          • Peter Ray Millman on

            Since this website is about having one autocephalous Orthodox Church in America, wouldn’t it be reasonable to assume that the commentators on this site are Americans? Although the United States is the world’s oldest democracy, and the greatest superpower of all time, I guess that does make the United States rather exceptional in some respects. Does the US have many faults? You bet, but so does every other state and country in the world. Well, at least you and I agree on one thing; the US is an exceptional country. In case you haven’t noticed, thousands of people are flooding our southern border every day. That’s one of America’s faults; we haven’t locked down our southern border yet.

            • If this website is about having an autocephalous church in America, it should stick to that subject, and stop providing unsolicited opinions on internal matters of autocephalous churches on the other side of the globe.
              And yes, America is exceptional. It is exceptionally similar to the Babylon of old. It would be fantastic to see it crumble on its rotten foundations.

  13. Cato the Elder on

    Peter Ray,

    KP makes no claim to being an American, or of loving America.

    He may or may not live in America but his comments display a disdain for its language and people.

    Instead of engaging in a thoughtful discussion on the original article or the comments of others relating to the issue of language in the liturgy in Orthodox Churches in America, he chose to mock America and Americans.

    OCL says it offers articles on this site to “encourage thoughtful discussion on topics and concerns relevant to Orthodox Christians living in a pluralistic society.”

    KP is not the first to abuse the invitation.

  14. Peter Ray Millman on

    Greetings Cato the Elder,
    The previous aforementioned commenter mocked the idea of American exceptionalism. It’s entirely possible he is not in possession of your historical knowledge and the noble history of American exceptionalism. As you know, the genesis of this idea can be found in John Winthrop’s speech On The Model of Christian Charity. Governor John Winthrop stated, “For we must consider that we shall be a city upon a hill. The eyes of all people shall be upon us.” Of course, the idea was further developed from the Revolutionary War and the US Constitution. As you know, President Kennedy and President Reagan quoted from the Governor’s famous speech. Now, how does that relate to the use of English in the American Orthodox Church? It’s easy! English is our language, and that is what we should be using in our liturgy. Many thanks for your kind response.

    • Easy there with the nationalism, it’s literal heresy. Also your revolutionaries were freemasons and slave owners lol.

  15. Cato the Elder on

    Deflection and whataboutism.. an America hater who wants to see America “crumble on its rotten foundations”..

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